Top ten plastic molding processes
First, injection molding
Injection : also known as injection molding, the principle is to add granular or powdery raw materials into the hopper of the injection machine, the raw material is heated and melted in a flowing state, and is poured by the nozzle and the mold under the push of the screw or piston of the injection machine. The system enters the mold cavity and hardens and shapes in the mold cavity.
Factors affecting the quality of injection molding: injection pressure, injection time, injection temperature
1. Short molding cycle, high production efficiency and easy automation
2, can form plastic parts with complex shapes, accurate dimensions, with metal or non-metal inserts
3, product quality is stable
4, a wide range of adaptation
1, the price of injection equipment is higher
2, the injection mold structure is complex
3, high production cost, long production cycle, not suitable for single-piece small batch production of plastic parts
In industrial products, injection molded products are: kitchen supplies (garbage cans, bowls, buckets, pots, cutlery and various containers), electrical equipment shells (hair dryers, vacuum cleaners, food blenders, etc.), toys and games, cars Various industrial products, parts of many other products, etc.
(2) Insert injection molding
Insert injection molding: Insert molding refers to a molding method in which a resin is injected into a mold and a resin is injected into the mold, and the molten material is bonded and solidified to form an integrated product.
1. The pre-formed combination of multiple inserts makes the post-engineering of the product unit combination more rational.
2. The combination of the moldability and flexibility of the resin and the rigidity, strength and heat resistance of the metal complements the compact and intricate metal-plastic integrated product.
3. In particular, the combination of the insulating properties of the resin and the electrical conductivity of the metal can be used to satisfy the basic functions of the electrical product.
4. For the rigid molded product and the curved elastic molded product on the rubber gasket plate, the integrated product is formed by injection molding on the substrate, which can eliminate the complicated operation of arranging the sealing ring, and make the automatic combination of the post process easier.
(3) two-color injection
Two-color injection molding: refers to the molding method of injecting two different color plastics into the same mold. It can make plastics appear in two different colors, and can make the plastic parts have a regular pattern or irregular cloud-like colors to improve the usability and aesthetics of the plastic parts.
1. The core material can use low viscosity materials to reduce the injection pressure.
2. From the perspective of environmental protection, the core material can use recycled secondary materials.
3, according to different use characteristics, such as thick pieces of finished leather layer using soft materials, core materials using hard materials or core materials can use foam plastic to reduce weight.
4. Lower quality core materials can be utilized to reduce costs.
5, the cortical material or core material can be used expensive and have special surface properties, such as anti-electromagnetic interference, high electrical conductivity and other materials to increase product performance.
6. The proper cortex material and core material can reduce the residual stress of the molded product, increase the mechanical strength or the surface properties of the product.
(4) Microfoam injection molding process
Microfoam injection molding process: It is an innovative precision injection molding technology that fills the product by the expansion of the pores and completes the molding of the part under a low and average pressure. The microcellular foaming process can be divided into three stages: first, a supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide or nitrogen) is dissolved in a hot melt to form a single-phase solution; and then a switch type nozzle is used to inject a mold having a lower temperature and pressure. The cavity, due to the instability of temperature and pressure, causes molecular instability to form a large number of bubble nuclei in the article, and these bubble nuclei gradually grow to form minute holes.
1. Precision injection molding;
2, breaking through the limitations of traditional injection molding, can significantly reduce the weight of the parts, shorten the molding cycle;
3. Greatly improved the warpage deformation and dimensional stability of the workpiece.
Car dashboard, door panel, air conditioning duct, etc.
(5) Nano Injection Molding (NMT)
NMT (Nano Molding Technology): It is a combination of metal and plastic technology. After the metal surface is nano-treated, the plastic is directly injected and formed on the metal surface, so that the metal and plastic can be integrally formed.
Nano-forming technology is divided into two types of processes based on the location of the plastic:
1. Plastic is a one-piece molding
2, plastic is the one-piece molding
1. The product has a metallic appearance texture.
2. The design of the product machine components is simplified, making the products lighter, thinner, shorter and smaller, and more cost-effective than the CNC machining method.
3, reduce production costs and high bonding strength, and significantly reduce the use of related consumables
Suitable metal and resin materials:
1. Aluminum, magnesium, copper, stainless steel, titanium, iron, galvanized sheet, brass;
2. The adaptability of aluminum alloy is strong, including 1000 to 7000 series;
3. The resin includes PPS, PBT, PA6, PA66, PPA;
4. PPS has a particularly strong bond strength (3000 N/cm2).
Mobile phone case, laptop case, etc.
Second, blow molding
Blow molding: a molten thermoplastic raw material extruded from an extruder is sandwiched into a mold, and then air is blown into the raw material, and the molten raw material is expanded by air pressure to be bonded to the wall surface of the mold cavity, and finally cooled. A method of curing into the desired product shape.
Blow molding is divided into two types: film blowing and hollow blowing:
1, film blow molding
Film blowing is to extrude molten plastic from a circular thin tube in the annular gap of the die of the extruder head, while blowing compressed air from the center hole of the machine head into the inner cavity of the thin tube to inflate the thin tube into a diameter. Larger tubular film (commonly known as a bubble tube), which is taken up after cooling.
2, hollow blow molding
Hollow blow molding is a secondary molding technique in which a rubber-like parison closed in a mold cavity is inflated into a hollow product by means of gas pressure, and is a method for producing a hollow plastic product. Hollow blow molding has different manufacturing methods for parisons, such as extrusion blow molding, injection blow molding, and stretch blow molding.
1) Extrusion blow molding: Extrusion blow molding is to extrude a tubular parison by an extruder, sandwich it in a mold cavity and heat the bottom, and then inject a compressed air into the inner cavity of the tube blank to form a blow molding.
2) Injection blow molding: The parison used was obtained by injection molding. The parison is left on the mandrel of the mold, and after the mold is closed by the blow mold, compressed air is introduced from the core mold to inflate the parison, and after cooling, the product is obtained after demolding.
The product has uniform wall thickness, small weight tolerance, less post-processing and small waste corner; suitable for producing small-sized fine products with large batch size.
3) Stretch blow molding: the parison which has been heated to the stretching temperature is placed in a blow mold, longitudinally stretched with a stretching rod, and laterally stretched and inflated with blown compressed air to obtain a product. method.
1. Film blowing is mainly used to make plastic thin molds;
2, hollow blow molding is mainly used to make hollow plastic products (bottles, packaging barrels, watering cans, fuel tanks, cans, toys, etc.).
Third, extrusion molding (profile)
Extrusion: Also known as extrusion molding, it is mainly suitable for the molding of thermoplastics, and is also suitable for the formation of thermosetting and reinforced plastics with better fluidity. The molding process uses a rotating screw to extrude the heated and melted thermoplastic material from a machine head having a desired cross-sectional shape, and then shaped by a sizing device, and then chilled and hardened by a cooler to obtain a desired cross section. product.
1. Low equipment cost;
2, the operation is simple, the process is easy to control, and it is convenient to realize continuous automatic production;
3. High production efficiency; uniform and compact product quality;
4. Products or semi-finished products of various cross-section shapes can be formed by changing the die of the machine head.
In the field of product design, extrusion has a strong applicability. Extrusion products include pipes, films, rods, monofilaments, flat belts, nets, hollow containers, windows, door frames, plates, cable clads, monofilaments and other profiles.
Four, calendering (sheet, film)
Calendering: A method in which a plastic material is passed through a series of heated press rolls to join a film or sheet under extrusion and stretching.
Advantages: good product quality, large production capacity, and automatic continuous production;
Disadvantages: large equipment, high precision requirements, many auxiliary equipment, product width is limited by the length of the calender roll.
Mostly used in the production of PVC soft film, sheet, sheet, artificial leather, wallpaper, floor leather and so on.
Five, press molding
Press molding: mainly used for the molding of thermosetting plastics. According to the properties of the molding materials and the characteristics of the processing equipment and process, press molding can be divided into two types: compression molding and lamination molding.
Molding, also known as compression molding, is the primary method of forming thermoset plastics and reinforced plastics. The process is to pressurize the raw material in a mold that has been heated to a specified temperature, so that the raw material is melted and uniformly filled into the cavity, and the raw material is formed into a product under a condition of heating and pressurization for a certain period of time.
The molded product has compact texture, accurate size, smooth and smooth appearance, no gate mark and good stability.
In industrial products, molded products include electrical equipment (plugs and sockets), handles, handles for tableware, bottle caps, toilet bowls, non-breaking plates (Melamine), carved plastic doors, and the like.
2, laminate molding
Lamination molding: a method in which two or more layers of the same or different materials are combined into one body under heat and pressure using a sheet or fibrous material as a filler.
The laminating process consists of three stages of impregnation, pressing and post-processing, and is used to produce reinforced plastic sheets, pipes, rods and model products. The texture is compact and the surface is smooth and smooth.
Six, injection molding
Injection molding: It is a molding method of thermosetting plastic developed on the basis of compression molding, also known as transfer molding. The process is similar to the injection molding process. During injection molding, the plastic is plasticized in the feeding cavity of the mold, and then enters the cavity through the casting system, and the injection molding is plasticized in the barrel of the injection molding machine.
The difference between injection molding and compression molding: the compression molding process is to first close the mold after feeding, and the injection molding generally requires the mold to be closed after feeding.
Advantages: (compared to compression molding)
1. The plastic has been plasticized before entering the cavity, and it can produce plastic parts with complex shape, thin wall or large wall thickness and fine inserts.
2. Shorten the molding cycle, improve production efficiency, and improve the density and strength of plastic parts.
3. Since the mold is completely closed before the plastic molding, the flash edge of the parting surface is very thin, so the precision of the plastic part is easy to ensure the surface roughness is also low.
1. There will always be some residual material left in the feeding room, and the raw material consumption is large;
2. The trimming of the gate marks increases the workload;
3. The molding pressure is larger than that of compression molding; the shrinkage ratio is larger than that of compression molding;
4. The structure of the mold is also more complicated than the structure of the compression mold;
5. The process conditions are more stringent than the compression molding requirements, and the operation is difficult.
Rotational molding: the plastic raw material is first added to the mold, and then the mold is continuously rotated and heated along the two vertical axes, so that the plastic raw material in the mold is gradually uniformly coated and melted and adhered under the action of gravity and heat energy. The entire surface of the cavity is formed into a desired shape, and then cooled, shaped, demolded, and finally obtained.
1. Provide more design space and reduce assembly costs;
2, the change is simple, the cost is low;
3. Save raw materials.
Water polo, floating ball, small swimming pool, bicycle seat cushion, surfboard, machine casing, protective cover, lampshade, agricultural sprayer, furniture, canoe, camping vehicle top, etc.
Eight, drop molding
Drop molding: It is a thermoplastic polymer material that has a state-variable property, that is, it has a viscous property under certain conditions, and can restore the solid state at a normal temperature, and uses an appropriate method and a special tool for inkjet. The viscous flow state is molded into a design form as required, and then solidified at room temperature.
The process mainly includes three stages: gel-dropping-cooling and solidification.
1. Product transparency and gloss are good;
2. It has physical properties such as anti-friction, waterproof and anti-pollution;
3, has a unique three-dimensional effect.
Plastic gloves, balloons, condoms, etc.
Nine, plastic molding
Blister molding: also known as vacuum forming, is one of the thermoplastic thermoforming methods. It refers to clamping the sheet or plate material on the frame of the vacuum forming machine, heating and softening, passing it through the air passage of the die edge, vacuuming it onto the mold, and cooling for a short time to obtain the molded plastic product. .
The vacuum forming methods mainly include die vacuum forming, punch vacuum forming, embossing die vacuum forming, bubble forming vacuum forming, plunger pushing down vacuum forming, vacuum forming with a gas buffer device, and the like.
The equipment is relatively simple, the mold does not need to withstand pressure, and can be made of metal, wood or gypsum, and the molding speed is fast and the operation is easy.
Widely used in food, cosmetics, electronics, hardware, toys, crafts, medicine, health products, daily necessities, stationery and other industries inside and outside packaging; disposable cups, all kinds of cups, etc.; breeding trays, breeding trays, degradable fast food box.
Ten, plastic molding
Molding: Pour plastic (plastic sol) into a mold (female or negative mold) that is preheated to a certain temperature. The paste plastic near the inner wall of the cavity will be gelled by heat and then will not gel. The paste plastic is poured out, and the paste plastic attached to the inner wall of the cavity is subjected to heat treatment (baking), and then the hollow product can be obtained from the mold by cooling.
1. Low equipment cost and high production speed.
2. The process control is simple, but the accuracy of the thickness and mass (weight) of the product is poor.
It is mainly used for high-end car dashboards and other products with high requirements for visual effects and plastic toys.